Haiti. According to Countryaah.com, Haiti population in 2020 is estimated at 11,402,539. The hopes that the political stalemate that has practically prevailed since Michel Martelly took office in 2011 could be broken when Martelly and Congress reached an agreement in March. The so-called El Rancho Agreement, named after the hotel where the negotiations took place, stipulated reorganization of the electoral authority and that elections to the Senate would be held at the end of October to fill ten seats vacant for two years. Martelly also appointed a new provisional election commission in May, in accordance with the agreement, passed a new anti-corruption law and reformed the government. Among other things, members of the popular former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s party included Fanmi Lavalas.
The optimism increased after a report by the UN stabilization force MINUSTAH showed that the security situation in the country has improved significantly with, among other things, fewer murders and kidnappings. The international community paid tribute to the progress.
However, the hopes did not break. According to topb2bwebsites, the election commission declared in August that the preparations for the election had not worked, partly because the necessary changes to the electoral law were not approved by the Senate. In addition, on August 10, 329 prisoners managed to escape from the Croix-des-Bouquets prison in the capital Port-au-Prince, which raised new questions about the legality of the legal system. The mass escape was the largest since the earthquake disaster in January 2010, and among the escapees was a well-known businessman, who was captured two days later.
At the same time, an arrest warrant was reported against President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, accused of illegal money laundering, corruption and drug smuggling. Aristide’s supporters as well as international observers claimed that the prosecutor’s decision was politically conditional, and demonstrations with up to 2,000 participants against the government with clashes with police occurred on a regular basis. Former dictator Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier (1971–86) died October 4 in a heart attack. Duvalier, who returned from a 25-year-old political exile in France in 2011, had been charged with embezzlement and human rights violations but was granted amnesty by President Martelly and was expected to again play an important role in Haiti’s political life. According to Abbreviation Finder, HT stands for Haiti in English. Click to see other meanings of this 2-letter acronym.
Population, society and rights
Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with more than three quarters of the population living on less than two dollars a day, and the second most densely populated after Barbados, with 379.6 residents per km 2. Haiti’s human development index is not only very low, but also records a trend opposite to the regional one. About three million Haitians have emigrated to the US or the Dominican Republic: 30% of Haitian families have relatives abroad. Haitians are 95% black of African descent who speak predominantly Creole, and 5% white and French-speaking mulattoes, essentially representing the elite. economic, social and cultural heritage of the country.
Infant mortality is very high: about 52.2 children per thousand die within the first year of life and 23.4% suffer from chronic malnutrition. Life expectancy at birth is low and stands at 63.1 years of age. Access to drinking water is only guaranteed to 57.7% of the population. After the earthquake, the health situation worsened further. The International Organization for Migration denounces that in most of the 306 refugee camps there are no toilets, drinking water and garbage collection systems. The number of displaced people, initially equal to two million, has however decreased by around 90% since 2010.
Haiti’s education system is very backward and can be compared to that of sub-Saharan African countries. Only 67% of children between the ages of 6 and 12 are enrolled in school and only 30% of primary school students complete the planned five years of education. The reason for the dropouts and the low enrollment rate is linked to the costs, which are too expensive for Haitian families. Public spending on education is not enough to guarantee education for all children.