According to Calculatorinc, Luxembourg served for twenty centuries as an arena to the European peoples, and preserves the signs of successive civilizations that came from Gaul. Celtic traces (dolmen in Diekirsch, Herthslei in Altlinster), Gallo-Roman and Roman (via per Trier, near Martelange and Mondorf-les Bois); are inscribed and sculpted in Berdorf and in the Luxembourg museum; Roman camp in Dalheim; mosaics in Madernach and Nennig, remains of towers in Haesdorf and Christnach; bas-reliefs in Bettendorf, remains of a bridge (4th century) in Echternach. The barbarian races left Frankish graves in Dalheim, Schandel, Emmering and Waldwies; were converted in the century. VIII, from San Willibrord, and were affected by the Carolingian civilization spreading from Aachen. When Lotharingia was established with the Treaty of Verdun (843), Luxembourg was included: and it too had an Ottonian art, subjected to the influences of the south and east, of Lombardy and the Rhine, known for its rhine-Mosan geographical position. Both the Abbey of Echternach (evangeliarî and “codex aureus” of the 8th and 10th centuries) and Trier (Byzantine enamels) had a certain importance for the Rhenish school of architecture and for the industrial arts of the Carolingian and Byzantine tradition 10th century, miniatures 10th-11th centuries), Metz (miniatures and ivories 9th-10th centuries), Liège (ivory 10th-11th centuries) and Cologne (12th century enamels). During the riots generated by the feudal wars, Luxembourg, oriented towards Germany, covered itself since the century. X fortresses of which imposing ruins remain: city walls, towers and square keep in Luxembourg (X-XIV centuries), in Larochette (XII century?), Square tower in Niederwiltz (X century), in Brandenburg (XII century until to 1668). There are numerous leftovers in the Our: in Vianden (13th-16th centuries) there is also a Romanesque chapel with a decagonal plan; in the Esch, in Schœnfels there is a huge four-storey vaulted keep, in Hollenfels a square keep from the 13th century. XIII, in Septfontaines a formidable fortress with walls and towers from the 9th-10th centuries; in the Sure we can remember Beaufort founded in the century. XIII, Bourscheid with Romanesque parts of the century. XII, Esch founded in the century. XI. Bourscheid with Romanesque parts of the century. XII, Esch founded in the century. XI. Bourscheid with Romanesque parts of the century. XII, Esch founded in the century. XI.
During the Gothic era, Luxembourg adhered to the French style; then reunited in Burgundy (1444), its artistic principles followed: Gothic realism (sepulcher in Septfontaines; tombs in Junglinster), the Italianate address, under the reigns of Charles V and Philip II (Grand Ducal palace in Luxembourg, 1563; chimneys Renaissance style from the 16th century in Erpelding castle; 16th century tombs in Junglinster), the Baroque in the 15th century. XVII (floral style partition and portals, 1621, of the cathedral in Luxembourg). French influence took over under Louis XIV and Louis XV (abbey of 1732 and Louis XV pavilion in Echternach). The park, the Adolfo bridge (1903) and the modern palace of the “Arbed” (1919-22) in Luxembourg are due to French artists.
In Luxembourg, the cathedral (1613), of a hybrid style combining Gothic, Moorish and Renaissance elements, has a portal from 1621, a Baroque partition and an interesting Treasury. The chapel of S. Quirino, partly Gallo-Roman, carved into the rock, has Romanesque sculptures on the altar and the facade is of the century. XIV. The church of S. Michele, which dates back in part to the century. XIII, has a beautiful Assunta by de Crayer (17th century). The church of S. Cunegonda stands on the site already occupied by the castle (1563-65) of Mansfeld, now almost completely disappeared; it retains some Romanesque sculptures and a beautiful park. The massive government palace is the ancient refuge of the abbey of S. Massimino di Treviri (18th century); has the interior decorated in Louis XV style. The palace of justice (1565) was remodeled in the century. XIX. In the town hall (1830) is the Fisherman Museum, with paintings from the Flemish, French and Dutch schools. The grand-ducal palace, built in 1563 by Ernesto di Mansfeld, preserves ancient tapestries. There remain the ruins of the castle of the counts of Luxembourg built on the Bock on which the Celtic oppidum and the castellum were already located(III century) by Gallienus. It is believed that the ruined tower and the “Melusina well” are due to Sigefredo (10th century); there are also ancient casemates carved into the rock (the Ponte del Bock  replaces the ancient drawbridge). Of the ancient fortifications remain the Pfaffenthal Gate, with three towers of the old city wall (1050-80), the Trier Gate (1398), three towers on the Rham (1393-1400), the underground Berlaymont (14th century) under the Palace Fisherman. Of the old Altmünster convent founded in 1086, destroyed in 1451 and 1684, some ruins remain; the new convent was attached (17th century) to the church of S. Giovanni, where the tombs of the counts of Luxembourg are preserved; the convent hospice dates back to 1624.
Interesting Roman and Frankish monuments are collected in the Historical Museum.
We also remember the fort of the “3 glands” (1732), two towers due to Vauban (1686), the monuments of William II of the Netherlands executed by Mercié (1884), of Princess Amalia by Petre, of the poets Diks and Lenk opera by Federspiel (1903); old houses at the fish market and on the Alzette.
In Diekirch there is an ancient church, which dates back in part to the 10th century. X and the restored Celtic Dolmen de la Hart.
In Vianden there is a castle of the 12th-17th centuries, which constitutes the most beautiful feudal complex in Luxembourg, with its walls, the knights’ room and the curious decagonal chapel, with a Romanesque portico and crypt (beginning of the 13th century). The so-called Hockelsturm is an ancient guardhouse. In the chapel of the Trinity convent (1248) there are ancient sepulchres (15th-16th centuries).
In Clervaux there is an old castle (12th-13th centuries until the 17th) with massive towers; the Benedictine abbey of S. Maurizio elevated in 1909-1912 in a severe neo-Romanesque style contains some beautiful German altarpieces of the century. XV. The new castle was built in the ancient deer park of the century. XVIII.
In Echternach, the Benedictine monastery, established in 698 by St. Willibrord, dates back in its present structure to 1732, while the abbey church of the century. XI (1017-1031), restored, is a Romanesque basilica with 13th century Gothic additions, with crypt and towers; inside it has alternating pillars with columns. The old Town Hall dates back to 1530; we also remember the town with five towers (11th century), the bridge with Roman substructures (4th century), the graceful Louis XV style pavilion and the picturesque church of San Pietro (1220).