Major Cities in Uzbekistan
Termez is located in the southern part of the country on the border with Afghanistan on the banks of the Amu Darya River. It was formed in the 19th century on the site of a Russian border post, however, a large trading settlement on this site existed during the reign of the Seleucids in the 2nd-3rd centuries BC. The remains of this settlement were found a few kilometers from modern Termez. In the 1st century A.D. Termez became one of the main Buddhist centers of Central Asia, as evidenced by the numerous cult complexes found in the vicinity of Termez. The most significant of these complexes are Kara-Tepa with the ruins of monasteries, monuments and the remains of frescoes and ancient inscriptions, Fayaztepa and Zurmal. All of them were erected in the 2nd century AD. during the reign of the Kushan king Kanishka, who declared Buddhism the state religion. In addition, such ancient buildings have been preserved in Termez, such as the mausoleum of Abdulla Muhammad Ibn Ali Termezy, the patron saint of the city (10-15 centuries), the ruins of the Kirk-Kiz castle of the 9th century, the mausoleum of Sultan Saadat of the 11-17th centuries and the remains of the fortress walls of Kampir-Tepe.
20 km from Termez there is a balneological resort Jayran-Kana. It functions on the basis of local hot sulfur springs, the composition of which is similar to the waters of Matsesta. The ethnographic zone is interesting to the north of Termez Baysun, which keeps the memory of the Greco-Bactrian and Kushan kingdoms. In ancient times, the paths of the Great Silk Road passed through the local mountain gorges. The local Teshik-Tash cave is known all over the world, in which traces of fires, a rich complex of stone tools and an incomplete skeleton of a Neanderthal boy were found. Trips to the villages of Baysun are very popular, where you can get acquainted with the folklore traditions of the local people and their main crafts – embroidery, carpet production, painting on ceramics and the Kuznetsk business. Surkhan Nature Reserve
is located near Baysun on the slopes of the Kugitang ridge.. It was established in 1987 on an area of 24,583 hectares. On the territory of the reserve there are steppe and forest (juniper) plant communities and typical vegetation of the subalpine belt. Among the many animals, the unique representatives of the fauna of Central Asia stand out – the markhor goat and the mountain sheep. In addition to the rich and diverse flora and fauna, the reserve is also home to archaeological sites. In the southeast of the reserve, traces of dinosaurs were found that lived in these parts several hundred million years ago. Also, more than 200 colored rock paintings of the Mesolithic and Neolithic eras were found on the territory of the reserve. These examples of ancient rock art are called the Zarautsa Gallery.
According to Homeagerly, Andijan is one of the oldest cities in the Ferghana Valley. Zakhriddin Babur was born in Andijan, a military leader, statesman and descendant of Timur, who conquered India and founded the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. In 1902, Andijansuffered from a strong earthquake, and the city was actually rebuilt.
Among the historical monuments, only the Jami madrasah has been preserved.
In the vicinity of Andijan, there are the remains of the settlement of Markhamat, the capital of the ancient state of Davan, as well as the remains of the ancient city of Kuva, where you can see the ruins of buildings of the 3rd century BC and a Buddhist temple of the 6th-8th centuries AD. e.
Namangan is located in the northeast of the Ferghana Valley near Andijan. For the first time the city is mentioned in the autobiography of Zahriddin Babur “Baburname”. After the independence of Uzbekistan, Namangan became a stronghold of Wahhabism (Islamic radical movement) in Central Asia.
In the vicinity of the city, the ruins of the ancient city of Akhsikent are interesting, which was the capital of the Ferghana Valley from the 10th to the 13th centuries. Also, not far from Namangan, in the valley of the Chartaksay river, there is a balneological resort “Chartak”, functioning on the basis of iodine-bromine mineral waters, and in the mountain spurs of the Chatkal ridge there is a valley of the Padshaatasay river with numerous recreation areas.