Mongolia. According to Countryaah.com, Mongolia population in 2020 is estimated at 3,278,301. A conflict was going on between the state and foreign mining companies regarding the licenses for mining, which slowed investment from outside. Among other things, the expansion was hindered by Oyu Tolgoi, one of the world’s largest unused copper deposits. There was also a dispute with Oyu Tolgoi’s owner about financing the mining project, and the underground mining was delayed.
The mining project, which has cost the equivalent of SEK 46 billion, is expected to produce over 300,000 tonnes of copper concentrate a year when this is completed. It is expected to contribute to Mongolia’s economy growing by a third by 2020.
In April, US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel visited Mongolia and promised to increase military cooperation with the country, mainly in terms of training soldiers. Mongolia has participated in, for example, the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan. During his visit, Defense Minister Hagel received a horse from the army cavalry as a gift, but the horse stayed in Mongolia.
According to topb2bwebsites, more than 1,000 soldiers from the United States and dozens of other countries participated in a military exercise in Mongolia in July intended as training for international peacekeeping missions. It was seen as a sign of Mongolia’s quest to expand its relations with the great powers beyond neighboring China and the Russian Federation. But Mongolia also holds annual military maneuvers with the Russian Federation.
China suggested that Mongolia be included as a full member of the Shanghai Regional Cooperation Organization (SCO), even though Mongolia did not show much interest. The country regards SCO as an authoritarian club, which limits Mongolia’s independence and weakens the development of democracy. According to Abbreviation Finder, MN stands for Mongolia in English. Click to see other meanings of this 2-letter acronym.
In August, Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Mongolia and proposed an expansion of trade between the countries. As commodity prices and investments went down, Mongolia was anxious about new transport, energy and mining investment agreements with the country that receives more than 90% of Mongolia’s exports, mainly minerals.
In September, Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin visited and signed several agreements with his Mongolian colleague. Putin also made a controversial statement referring to the Soviet Union’s victory, including Mongolia, over Japan in the war 75 years earlier.
After a turmoil in the government with the resignation of several ministers, in November Parliament voted away Prime Minister Norovin Altanchujag. Parliament also rejected the government’s budget and demanded austerity. The new head of government was Chimed Saikhanbileg, who was also a minister in the previous government. The opposition criticized the appointment, saying that as a member of the resigned government he was co-responsible for the economic crisis that prevailed.
HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
Internal state of Central Asia. At the 2000 census the population was 2,373,493 residents (average density 2 residents / km 2), for 91.9 % Mongolians of various ethnic groups (khalkha 81.5 %, dörvöd 2.8 %, bayad 2.1 %, and others), while the largest minority it is that of the Kazakhs (4.3 %). The difficult economic reality of the countryside is favoring a massive phenomenon of urbanization especially towards the capital, Ulan Bator, which has almost reached one million residents, equal to over a third of the total population of the country.
Although in the early 2000s it showed good economic vivacity (GDP grew by 5.5 % in 2003, 10.6 % in 2004 and 6.2 % in 2005), it remains one of the most poor of the world: about 36 % of the population lives below the poverty line, and hunger and chronic undernourishment are a rather widespread reality. To deal with this situation, the government resorted to international aid: in 2005 Mongolia was the third country for the amount of grants received from world organizations. The economy is not very diversified and is supported by the primary sector, by the mining sector (coal, copper, gold) and by the textile industry. The primary sector is based above all on breeding and cereal production, but it is largely conditioned by the climatic trend; the mining sector, on the other hand, despite its enormous natural resources, suffers from the lack of infrastructure, the scarcity of investments and the strong dependence on the trend in the prices of raw materials on international markets. Foreign trade recorded good results: in 2005 the largest export market was China (48.1% of the total), followed by Russia, the United States, South Korea and Japan. Mongolia traded mainly minerals and textiles (over 60 % of total exports) for machinery, electrical equipment, vehicles and food.