Nigeria borders in the west with Benin, in the north with Niger, in the northeast with Chad (Lake Chad), in the east and southeast with Cameroon. The coastal plain on the Gulf of Guinea with the Bay of Benin to the west and the Bay of Bonny to the east of the Niger estuary expands in the Niger Delta to a 100 km wide swamp area. Inland follow plateaus (in the west; 300–500 m above sea level) and hilly lands (up to 600 m above sea level), the 80–160 km wide Niger – (from the northwest) and Benuesenken (from the east) are divided into a western and eastern area and bounded to the north. The center of the northern Nigerian plateau landscape is the highlands of Bauchi (up to 1,200 m above sea level), on which the Josplateau rises to 1,780 m above sea level. In the extreme northwest, the plain around Sokoto (180–240 m above sea level) joins, in the northeast the Borno Plateau, which sinks to the Chad Basin (Nigeria has a share of Lake Chad ). The highest peaks in Nigeria, the Shebshi Mountains with Vogel Peak (2,042 m above sea level) and the Gotel Mountains (in the Chappal Wadi up to 2,419 m above sea level) are located in the mountainous country on the central eastern border.
The national flag was first hoisted on Independence Day. Three vertical stripes in green-white-green symbolize the fertile landscape (green) and peace (white).
The coat of arms was awarded by the British Queen Elizabeth II on May 20, 1960. It shows a silver shaft bar, a symbol of the Niger and Benue rivers, in the black shield held by two horses. The black color is symbolic of the Nigerian earth. The shield and shield holder stand on a meadow sprinkled with cactus flowers, at the foot of the coat of arms there is a tape with the motto “Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress” (unity and loyalty, peace and progress). The upper coat of arms is a red eagle on a helmet bulge in the national colors.
National holiday: October 1st commemorates the gaining of independence in 1960.
At the federal level, there is the Supreme Court, the Federal Court of Appeal, and the Federal High Court. Each state has its own judicial system, each with a High Court of Justice and other courts. In addition, military courts with special appellate courts (also to combat corruption) have been set up.
Private and criminal law are based on English common law; the death penalty is provided for serious crimes. Traditionally, tribal law and Islamic law apply to family and inheritance law. In northern and central Nigeria, several states have had Sharia law ( Islamic law ) introduced what goes beyond the areas of law traditionally dominated by Islamic law and z. B. also concerns criminal law. Sharia is partly in competition with state law, which in some areas of law has led to a de facto division of the country into a zone in the south with the application of conventional state law and a zone in the north characterized by Sharia law. In recent years, some stoning judgments ( stoning ) passed in the north have caused a sensation around the world.
There is general compulsory schooling from 6 to 15 years of age. The school system is based on the six-year primary level; The secondary school builds on this with a two-stage general education (Junior and Senior Secondary School; 3 years each) and a professional branch (Technical Secondary School). The language of instruction is English. According to andyeducation, state schools are poorly equipped, there is a lack of qualified teachers, and existing ones are poorly paid. Children from better-off families are increasingly attending well-equipped private schools. Nigeria has numerous universities, including the Universities of Nigeria (founded in 1960; seat: Nsukka), Lagos (1962), Benin City (1970), Calabar (1975), Ibadan (1962) and Zaria (1962).
The media landscape is vibrant and diverse, but the reception of foreign radio stations is restricted by law. Intimidation and threats against journalists by state organs are widespread.
Press: There are around 100 newspapers. The largest daily newspapers include “The Sun” (Lagos), “New Telegraph” (Lagos), “The Punch” (Ikeja), “Thisday” (Lagos), “The Guardian” (Lagos), “Nigerian Tribune” (Ibadan), “Daily Trust” (Kaduna), “Vanguard” (Lagos), “Leadership” (Abuja) and “Daily Champion” (Lagos). Political weeklies include: »Tell Magazine« and »Newswatch«.
News Agency : News Agency of Nigeria (NAN, state).
Broadcasting: The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) broadcasts radio programs (»Radio Nigeria«) in English and 14 other languages. “Voice of Nigeria” is the foreign service. The national television of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) can be received nationwide; every state has its own transmitter. There are also several hundred regional and local radio stations. Larger private TV stations are “AIT”, “Galaxy TV”, “Silverbird TV” and “Channels TV”.
Telecommunications: With the expansion of mobile communications and Internet access, which is being promoted with Chinese support, the importance of the fixed network continues to decline.