Turkmenistan. According to Countryaah.com, Turkmenistan population in 2020 is estimated at 6,031,211. President Gurbanguli Berdimuchammedov dismissed the head of the state gas company in January, claiming that he had not done enough to broaden the important gas industry that is supporting Turkmenistan’s economy.
The country has the world’s fourth-largest reserves of natural gas and has built up exports to China via a new pipeline, but exports to the Russian Federation have declined in recent years. According to the president, the gas industry is underperforming despite billions of dollars.
During the year, however, several major projects were set to broaden the gas industry, including chemical factories for the production of plastics and natural fertilizers from natural gas, with investors from Japan and South Korea. A Turkish-Japanese consortium will also build the world’s first high-tech gas conversion plant for gasoline.
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), GDP growth for the year would reach almost 11% due to increased gas exports to China. In the autumn before the inauguration of the world’s largest natural gas field, Galkynysh, the Turkmen leader and China’s president had inaugurated a new production facility at the Bagtyarlyk gas field when the Turkmen leader presided over a gilded throne.
The rear tire field is estimated to have reserves of 1.3 trillion cubic meters and has cost the equivalent of close to SEK 30 billion. Investors are the Chinese oil and gas giant CNPC, and the gas will go to China in an approximately 700 km long pipeline. Under the agreement, annual gas exports to China are expected to triple to 65 billion cubic meters by 2020.
According to topb2bwebsites, the president decided to withdraw the 120 liters of gasoline per month distributed to car owners. It was an attempt to reduce the state’s pressed spending. Natural gas, water and electricity are still free. According to critics, free energy and free water help to keep wages down. They are at their best at the equivalent of just over SEK 2,000 a month.
At the beginning of the 2000s the government of S. Niyazov, uncontested head of state since 1991 and declared president for life in 1999, assumed ever more authoritarian and personalistic characters, while the political activity of the opposition remained forbidden. The only recognized party continued to be the pro-government Democratic Party, whose repeated victories in electoral competitions were predictable and meaningless. Intended to strengthen and exalt national identity, Niyazov in recent years launched a series of measures which, presented as a safeguard of Turkmen traditions, ended up further restricting individual freedoms and accentuating the isolation of the population and, given their eccentricity, highlighted the increasingly despotic character that the regime was assuming. According to Abbreviation Finder, TM stands for Turkmenistan in English. Click to see other meanings of this 2-letter acronym.
After having authorized (in July 2000) access to the public administration only to those who were able to document their genealogy for at least three generations, Niyazov imposed on the capital’s theater the exclusive execution of performances by national authors (April 2001), as well as the adoption as a textbook of a volume attributed to him, the Ruhnama (Book of the soul), a sort of code of spiritual conduct, finally coming (ag. 2002) to replace the name of the months of the year and the days of the week with the names of Turkmen heroes and historical figures.
According to international observers, the exaltation of nationalism was aimed at covering the growing economic difficulties of the country which, despite being able to count on huge energy resources, was struggling to start an effective modernization process that guaranteed higher living standards for the population: the infrastructures remained inadequate, corrupt bureaucracy while the inequality in the distribution of wealth continued to be high.
In November 2002, Niyazov, who escaped an attack, further accentuated the repressive regime and in the following months arrests and arbitrary violence against the population were carried out, severely condemned by international organizations. Restrictive measures were also taken against religious organizations, which were, among other things, banned (Nov. 2003) from forming a political party. The legislative elections (December 2004 – January 2005) once again sanctioned the victory of the Democratic Party, the only group allowed to participate. Niyazov’s death in December 2006 sparked a tough succession struggle and in February 2007 K. Berdymukhamedov, his close collaborator, was elected president.
Despite the accentuated internal closure, in foreign policy the regime continued to increase relations with European countries and the United States, as well as with neighboring countries, and to seek a regional location that would allow it to maintain a certain autonomy from Moscow. Despite the resistance of the latter, the project of an Afghan-Pakistani route for the transport of crude oil was resumed and approved in the last years of the 20th century and new alliances with China and Japan were proposed for the exploitation of energy resources.