Mozambique. In January, negotiations between the government and the opposition party Renamo resumed on a solution to the ongoing conflict. That same month, Renamo announced that the party would run for president in October.
In the spring, a demonstration was held in the capital Maputo where people protested a bill for increased compensation to, among others, the outgoing President Armando Guebuza, who, in addition to his regular pension, would receive a large contribution in connection with his resignation later in the year. However, Guebuza chose to veto the proposal. As the Constitution prevented Guebuza from running for a third term, Secretary of Defense Filipe Nyusi was appointed new Presidential candidate for Frelimo.
In early May, a judge was shot dead in Maputo. According to Countryaah.com, Mozambique population in 2020 is estimated at 31,255,446. The murder was judged to be politically motivated because the dead judge had been involved in the investigation of the numerous kidnappings that have taken place in recent years. In addition, a large amount of money was found in the car the judge was traveling in when he was shot.
In August, the government and Renamo finally agreed on a peace agreement that raised hopes that the protracted conflict between the parties would cease. The agreement meant, among other things, that Renamo’s soldiers would be integrated into the national army in exchange for relinquishing their weapons. The agreement also regulated how control over the increased natural resources from coal and natural gas, among other things, would be distributed between the opposition and the government, a matter that had previously been a breeding ground for conflict because the opposition felt discredited. In connection with the signing of the agreement, Renamo’s party leader Afonso Dhlakama broke his five-year exile from the public. According to Abbreviation Finder, MZ stands for Mozambique in English. Click to see other meanings of this 2-letter acronym.
Before the election, violent acts occurred and many people were killed or injured. There were also reports of irregularities in a number of polling stations both before and during Election Day. Despite this, the election was described as historic because for the first time it was relatively even between the two main opponents, while a third alternative was available. As expected, Frelimos Nyusi became the winner of the election with 57% of the vote against Renamos Dhlakama, who got 36%. Then came Daviz Simango from the opposition party Mozambique’s Democratic Movement (MDM). Frelimo retained his majority in Parliament despite losing the party almost 50 seats and landing on 144 seats. However, the two opposition parties went ahead with their 89 and 17 seats, respectively.
According to topb2bwebsites, both Renamo and MDM questioned the election results, saying there had been electoral fraud, while international election observers felt the election had been relatively free and fair. However, a report by EU chief observer Judith Sargentini in November presented information that the election campaign had benefited Frelimo, who had won all the elections in the country since Portugal’s independence in 1975.
Population, society and rights
More than 60% of the Mozambican population is under the age of 25. The demographic structure represents a major challenge for the government, which is struggling to improve the provision of basic social services, to reduce illiteracy rates (the literacy rate is only 56%) and to expand access to health services. . The spread of the HIV virus is considerable (11.1%) and Mozambique is the 178th country out of 187 in terms of human development.
There is also a strong discrepancy between living conditions in urban and rural areas: more than 80% of poor families live in rural areas. Poverty in rural areas is also due to the lack of infrastructure and communication routes linking the countryside to urban centers. Mozambique has one of the lowest rates of agricultural technology in the world. Furthermore, the country is massively affected by the phenomenon of land grabbing.
Mozambique has always experienced high rates of emigration to South Africa. The growing social unrest has also affected the increase in specific crimes. Since 2013 there have been many abductions for extortion of citizens of Indian origin, generally more affluent than the rest of the population, emphasizing the gap between the communities.