South America Overview

South America belongs to the American continent, which is also formed by Central America and North America. South America has its limits to the east with the Atlantic Ocean, to the west with the Pacific Ocean, and to the north with the Caribbean Sea. It is linked to Central America by Panama, according to

South America Countries

South American Relief

The relief of South America is determined by three mountainous regions: the Andes mountain range, the northern Amazonian plateaus (former Guiana plateau or Parima system), and the plateaus and mountain ranges of the East-Southeast Atlantic.

Among these regions, there are areas of plains, formed by the three main hydrographic basins of the continent: the Amazon, the Orinoco and the Paraná River. The highest point is Mount Aconcagua (6,959m), on the border between Chile and Argentina.

The Coast of South America

The coast of South America is bathed by the Atlantic Ocean and is 16 thousand km long. It has low slopes, a wide continental shelf and is rich in accidents, such as the Gulfs of Darien and Venezuela, the peninsulas of Goajira and Pária, in the sea of the Antilles, and the bays of São Marcos, Todos os Santos and Guanabara.

The part bathed by the Pacific Ocean is 9,000 km long and has high coasts, with great underwater depths, the only most rugged area is located in the south, where many islands and archipelagos appear.

Countries Average rainfall / month Average rainfall / year
Argentina Buenos Aires 109 mm (March), 56 mm (July)
Bolivia La Paz 140 mm (Jan), 8 mm (June)
Brazil Brasilia 319 mm (Feb), 0 mm (June)
Chile Santiago 84 mm (June), 2 mm (Feb)
Colombia Bogotá 160 mm (Oct), 51 mm (Feb)
Ecuador Quito 175 mm (April), 20 mm (July)
Guyana 2,300 mm (coast), 1,800 mm (southern hinterland)
Paraguay 1,120 mm in Asunción, 815 mm in the west, 1,525 mm in the east
Peru Lima 40-50 mm 2
Suriname Paramaribo 310 mm (May), 76 mm (Oct)
Uruguay about 1,000 mm
Venezuela Caracas 8 mm (Jan – April), 145 mm (Aug – Oct)

Platinum America

According to Countryaah, there are 12 countries in South America.

Occupying an area of approximately 3.3 million square kilometers, América Platina is a South American region formed by three nations: Argentina (2.7 million km²), Paraguay (406,700 km²) and Uruguay (177, 4 thousand km²). These three countries are bathed by the main rivers that make up the Rio Prata River Basin – Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Platinum America’s climate and terrain vary by region. In the western portion, on the border of Argentina and Chile, the Andes Mountains are located. In regions close to Brazil, lowland areas prevail. In the north, the predominant climate is tropical; to the south, the climate is temperate.

During part of the colonial period, all of Platinum America had a single political administration. This fact contributed to these countries having some points in common, such as, for example, the official language (Spanish). There are also similarities in human and cultural aspects.

The platinum population is made up of around 50.5 million inhabitants, of which 40.6 million reside in Argentina. Due to the intense migratory flow of Spaniards and Italians to the region, mainly to Argentina and Uruguay, the white population of European origin is the majority in these two countries. In Paraguay, inhabitants of Amerindian origin and mestizos predominate.

The local economy is quite diverse. Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay develop agricultural activities, especially sheep and cattle and the cultivation of corn, wheat, soy, cotton and fruit. The industrial sector is based on the segments of food, textiles, electronics, etc. Other highlights are tourism, mining and wine production, especially in Argentina and Uruguay.

In order to maximize economic relations between the countries of Platinum America and Brazil, Mercosur (Southern Common Market) was created, considered the largest economic bloc in South America. The formation of this bloc provided a greater flow of imports and exports between the four member countries.

In the social aspect, Argentina and Uruguay have high Human Development Indexes (HDI), with an average of 0.775 and 0.765, respectively. Paraguay, on the other hand, has an average HDI: 0.640.


For many years, the economy of most South American countries was not well developed. The majority of the population worked in agriculture, and there were not many industries. In addition, countries depended on foreign aid. However, in the second half of the 20th century, many South American countries began to try to improve their economy by encouraging industrialization.

South America is very rich in minerals. It has, for example, one fifth of the ore iron worldwide, and a large amount of oil and natural gas. Copper, tin, lead and zinc are mined in the Andes. Brazil has many precious stones.

Agriculture represents a large part of the South American economy. Sheep and cattle are raised all over the continent. Argentina is a major exporter of beef. Coffee, cocoa, sugar cane, pineapple and bananas are produced in the tropical and subtropical regions. A little further from the equator, corn, oranges, wheat, legumes and vegetables are grown.

Brazil is the most industrialized country in South America. It has an important aircraft industry, which exports to more developed countries. Its factories, like those in Argentina, produce cars, trucks, tractors and industrial machines. Several countries manufacture clothes. Financial services and trade are vital for all South American countries. Full of varied attractions, South America is an important world tourist center and has been developing the services necessary for good service in this area.

Andean America and Latin America

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