Europe Overview

Europe, the second least of the continents (after Oceania) and the most densely populated; the area includes (including European Russia, see Countryaah) DKK 10.5 million km2 with approx. 700 million population.

The continent’s name

Modern research has wanted to divert Europe from a Semitic word ereb ‘west, evening,’ ie the evening country. The etymology is highly uncertain. Since ancient Greece, the continent’s name has traditionally been associated with the mythological princess Europe, which Zeus abducted in the form of a bull. This etymology is solely due to the particularity.

The Greek historian Herodotus shared in 400 AD. the world in three parts: Libya (ie Africa), which separates the Nile from Asia, Asia and Europe, separated by the Aegean Sea and by the river Fasis in the Caucasus. About Herodot ‘s name, Herodotus tells:

“With regard to Europe, then, no one knows whether it has moved by sea, or from whence it got its name, or who gave it it – if we do not then say that the country has its name after the Turkish royal daughter Europe and before her time was nameless like the other parts of the world, but she was originally from Asia and did not come to the country now called by the Hells, but from Phoenician she came to Crete and from Crete to Lycia. let it suffice now for that matter; we must use the names which have now become commonplace. ” (Book 4, Chapter 45; Thure Hastrup’s translation)

The geographer Hekataios of Milet (c. 560-485 BC) had in his description of the flat earth disc made a distinction between Asia and Europe. Possibly, for the first time, Europe has been used as a common denominator for the countries west of the Aegean Sea by the Greeks who inhabited the coast of Asia Minor. Their need to perceive Europe and Asia as two continents arose during their revolt against the Persians (499-480 BC).


Europe can be seen both as a continent and as the peninsula that terminates the Eurasian mainland to the west.

Country Highest mountain
Albania Korab (2,751 m asl)
Andorra Coma Pedrosa (2,947 m asl)
Armenia Aragats (4090 masl)
Azerbaijan Bazardjuzju (4,466 m asl)
Belgium Botrange (694 m asl)
Bosnia and Herzegovina Maglić (2,386 m asl)
Bulgaria Musala (2,925 masl)
Cyprus Olympus (in the Troodos Massif, 1,953 masl)
Denmark highest natural point Möllehöj (171 m above sea level)
Estonia Suur Munamägi (318 m above sea level)
Finland Halde Fjäll / Haltiantunturi (1328 masl)
France Mont Blanc (4810 m asl)
Georgia Sjchara (5064 masl), Kazbegi (5033 masl)
Greece Olympos (2,917 masl)
Ireland Carrantuohill (1040 m asl)
Iceland Hvannadalshnúkur (in Öraefajökull, 2110 m above sea level)
Italy Monte Rosa (4633 m asl)
Croatia Dinara (1,830 masl)
Latvia Gaizinkalns (312 masl)
Liechtenstein Vorder Grauspitz (2,599 masl)
Lithuania Aukštojas (294 masl)
Luxembourg Kneiff (560 masl)
Northern Macedonia Korab (2,764 masl)
Malta Benghiza Point (253 masl )
Moldova Balanesti (429 masl)
Monaco Chemin des Révoirés (162 masl)
Montenegro Bobotov Kuk (2,523 meters above sea level)
Netherlands Vaalserberg (321 masl)
Norway Galdhopiggen (2469 masl)
Poland Rysy (in the High Tatras; 2,499 m above sea level)
Portugal Pico (Azores, 2,351 masl), Serra da Estrela (mainland, 1,991 masl)
Romania Moldovan (2,544 m asl)
Russia Elbrus (5624 masl), Dychtau (5024 masl), Kljutjevskaya sopka (4750 masl), Belucha (4056 masl)
San Marino Monte Titano (739 masl)
Switzerland Dufourspitze / Monte Rosa (4634 masl)
Slovakia Gerlachovský stít (2,633 masl)
Slovenia Triglav (2,863 masl)
Spain Mulhacén (mainland, 3481 m asl), Pico de Teide (Tenerife island, 3718 m asl)
UK Ben Nevis (Scotland, 1344 masl), Snowdon (Wales, 1085 masl), Scafell Pike (England, 978 masl)
Sweden Kebnekaise (2,097 m asl)
Czech Republic Sněžka (in the Sudetenland, 1603 masl)
Turkey Ararat (5,137 masl)
Germany Zugspitze (2962 masl)
Ukraine Hoverla (in the Carpathians, 2061 m above sea level)
Hungary Kékes (1014 m asl)
Vatican City State there is nothing
Belarus Dzerzhinsky Mountains (346 m above sea level)
Austria Grossglockner (3798 masl)


Europe’s climate varies from polar climate in the northernmost regions to temperate climate to subtropical climate in the Mediterranean region.


Europe’s plate tectonic growth began in the Precambrian and was far advanced when Europe and Asia for approx. 300 million years ago by a collision in the Uralids was united to a large continent, Eurasia. Check ALLCITYCODES to see capital cities of all European countries.


The coastal areas of the Arctic Ocean in northern Scandinavia and Russia belong to the species-poor and uniform Arctic tundra region.


Europe, together with North Africa, the Middle East and temperate and arctic Asia, constitute the Palarctic region or subregion, and there is no.

European minorities

In today’s Europe, several groups invoke special political rights, citing peoples.


The languages of Europe are, with few exceptions, the Indo-European language set. They are geographically distributed with Romanian languages in the west and south, besides.


In modern times, European education systems have evolved primarily on the basis of educational ideas that are based on the human vision of the Enlightenment and in.


Man came to Europe for between 1 and 3/4 million. years ago, probably from Africa, where the early human type Homo erectus lived from about 1.6 million. years ago.


The name Europe is known with geographical significance from the oldest Greek poets. At Hesiod, Europe and Asia are both daughters of the ocean, Okeanos.

Idea of Europe

In ancient and medieval Europe, first and foremost, it was used as a geographical and mythological term. As a political slogan and as an invitation to form common fronts appears.

Geology and landforms

In Europe there are formations from all the geological ages. The oldest Precambrian rocks are found in Russia and in parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Scotland as the Baltic shield. In the west this is bounded by the Caledonian mountain range folding which formed the mountains of Norway, Scotland, Northern England and Northern Ireland.

Eventually, younger mountain ranges joined this core region, first the Hercynian mountain range folding in the earth’s younger age and later the Alpine mountain range folding, including the Pyrenees, Alps, Apes, Balkans and the Caucasus.

Above these older bedrock layers and in recesses are deposits of sedimentary rocks, including the continental shelf, the North Sea and parts of Central Europe, Denmark, England and Russia.

About 60 million years ago, the European soil plate began to separate layers from the North American plate through the gradual expansion of the North Atlantic. Europe took shape today when the Alpine mountain range was formed about five million years ago. This folding is still in progress.

In large parts of Europe, the distribution of land, lakes and seas was formed after Northern Europe and large parts of Central and Eastern Europe had been covered several times by massive ice masses. Among other things, thick moraine layers laid out large parts of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark.

In the Northwest and Northern Europe there is a wide continental shelf, of which the North Sea is also a geological part.

South of the Alpine mountain range, geologically unstable regions with earthquakes and volcanism are found, and on the Mid-Atlantic ridge the islands of Jan Mayen and Iceland are also geologically unstable.

Europe’s highest mountain ranges are, from the west to the east, the Iberian mountains and the Sierra Nevada in Spain, the Alps, northwestern Scotland and the western part of the Scandinavian peninsula, the Apennines, the Dinaric Alps, the Carpathians, the Balkans, the Caucasus and the Ural Mountains.

Active volcanoes include Eyjafjallajökull and Hekla in Iceland, Beerenberg on Jan Mayen, and Vesuvius, Etna and Stromboli in Italy.

Numerous rivers flow from the mountainous areas. Some of the most important are Ebro, Douro, Guadalquivir and Guadiana in the Iberian Peninsula, Rhône, Loire and Seine in France, Rhine and Elbe in Germany, Po in Italy, Danube in Central and Eastern Europe and Dnieper in Eastern Europe and Volga in Russia.

Fjords cut into a number of places, such as on Svalbard and in parts of Iceland, Norway, Ireland and the west coast of Scotland and on the Balkan Peninsula. Rows of coastal islands can be found in Lofoten in Norway, inland in the North Sea (Frisian Islands) and along the eastern Adriatic coast.

The northern Mediterranean coast is mostly a rocky coast. The same applies to parts of the west coast of Ireland and Scotland, parts of Iceland, Norway, the Balkans, Turkey and the Caucasus.

The coast of the Bay of Biscay, Eastern England, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, northwestern Germany and the Polish, Baltic, Swedish and Finnish Baltic Sea coasts have lowlands with coastal dunes in many places. Around the northern part of the Caspian Sea lies the Caspian lowering. Almost the whole of the Netherlands is formed by river fillings in the sea.

Large agricultural areas are found, for example, in a wide belt from Spain to France in the west, over Central and Central Europe, in the areas south of the Baltic Sea, in Ukraine and east to the foot of the Ural Mountains.

Europe Overview

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